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            常春藤解析英語【101】Gargoyle Statues 教堂的守護者—滴水嘴獸

            2010-11-13 20:57:26 來源:常春藤英語
            Gargoyle Statues 教堂的守護者—滴水嘴獸

            by Suzanne Cowan

            These statues with creepy faces have had a number of uses.

            For over 2,000 years, gargoyle statues have been used to adorn buildings such as cathedrals and castles. Gargoyles, carved from stone, usually look like frightening mythical creatures. _(1)_ When placed on a building's exterior, they add an eerie visual interest, but they have served more practical purposes as well.
            The word gargoyle comes from the French word gargouille, which means throat. Originally, gargoyle statues were used to protect a building from flooding during a heavy rainfall by directing water away from the building's rooftop. _(2)_ Although the word gargoyle had been used to refer to statues that served as waterspouts, it came to be used in a more general way and describes all kinds of statues perched upon buildings. It might seem curious that people made their waterspouts look like such terrifying creatures, but their sinister appearance is quite intentional. The reason was the belief that evil spirits would try to attack churches. _(3)_
            Although gargoyles have been around for over 2,000 years, they are most often associated with the medieval period. _(4)_ The exterior of Notre Dame is heavily decorated with a variety of gargoyles. Some look like fantastical monsters, while others are sculptures of religious monks. Like many modern gargoyles, the ones at Notre Dame are decorative. _(5)_ Whether they fend off evil spirits, no one really knows.

            (A) They do not serve the purpose of directing water off of the roof.
            (B) A scary statue sitting on top of the building would frighten the evil spirits and prevent them from entering.
            (C) A classic example of gargoyle statues from this time can be found at the Notre Dame Cathedral de Paris in France.
            (D) Most gargoyles were made with spouts in their mouths from which the water poured out.
            (E) Although they can be sculpted into many different forms, they are often winged animals with horns, demonic-looking humans, or a combination of the two.


            1. 第一題空格應選 (E)
            a. 空格前提及,滴水嘴獸(Gargoyles)是石頭雕刻而成(carved from stone),通?雌饋硎菄樔说纳裨捁治。
            b. (E) 選項則說到,雖然它們(they)可以被雕刻成許多種不同的樣貌(can be sculpted into many different forms),但大多是有翅膀的長角動物,或是面目猙獰的人類,也可能是兩者的綜合體。選項中的 they 指的就是 gargoyles,且兩句有關鍵詞 carved(被雕刻)與 sculpted(被雕刻),可知 (E) 為正選。
            c. 雖然 (D) 選項看似可置入空格,與前一句皆有關鍵詞滴水嘴獸(gargoyles),但置入后與后面一句語意不連貫,故不可選。
            a. sculpt vt. 雕刻,雕塑
            b. winged a. 有翼的,有翅膀的
            c. horn n. 角,觸角
            d. demonic-looking  貌似惡魔的
            demonic a. 惡魔般的
            e. combination n. 結合(體)
            例: The secret to this delicious dish is the combination of spices.

            2. 第二題空格應選 (D)
            a. 空格前提到,起初滴水嘴獸的作用是在大雨來臨時,把水導離屋頂(directing water away from the building's rooftop),以避免建筑物淹水。
            b. (D) 選項則進一步說明,大多數滴水嘴獸的嘴部都裝有噴水口,以便將水排出(the water poured out),前后語意連貫,故選之。
            a. spout n. 噴嘴,容器嘴
            b. pour out  傾瀉而出,涌出
            例: Once the dam broke, water poured out all over the street.

            3. 第三題空格應選 (B)
            a. 空格前兩句提到,人們將排水口做成嚇人的怪物造型令人匪夷所思,但它們邪惡的外表是有其目的。這是因為以前的人相信惡靈會攻擊教堂(evil spirits would try to attack churches)。
            b. (B) 選項進一步說明,坐落在建筑物頂端的嚇人雕像能夠把惡靈嚇跑(frighten the evil spirits),讓他們無法進入教堂,語意連貫,且兩句均有關鍵詞 evil spirits(惡靈),故選之。
            a. scary a. 嚇人的
            b. frighten vt. 使驚恐,使害怕
            c. prevent sb/sth from + V-ing  防止∕阻止某人∕某物……
            例: My flat tire prevented me from getting to work on time.

            4. 第四題空格應選 (C)
            a. 空格前提及,雖然滴水嘴已存在 2 千多年,但它們大多令人聯想到中世紀(medieval period)。而空格后提及圣母院(Notre Dame)的外觀有大量的滴水嘴獸作為裝飾。
            b. (C) 選項提及,當時(from this time)典型的滴水嘴獸雕像可見于法國巴黎的圣母院(Notre Dame Cathedral de Paris in France),選項中的 this time 指的就是 medieval period,且兩句均有關鍵詞 Notre Dame(圣母院),可知 (C) 為正選。

            5. 第五題空格應選 (A)
            a. 空格前提及,如同現代的滴水嘴,圣母院的滴水嘴獸純粹為裝飾用途(decorative)。
            b. (A) 選項則說,它們(滴水嘴獸)不具有將雨水導離屋頂的功能,語意連貫,故選之。
            a. serve the purpose of... 達到……的目的∕作用
            例: This fence serves the purpose of keeping stray dogs out.
            b. direct vt. 引導,指引
            direct water off of the roof  將水導出屋頂


            1. originally adv. 起初,原來
            例: New York was originally a Dutch colony.

            2. protect sb/sth from + N/V-ing  保護某人∕某物免于……
            例: This sunscreen lotion will protect you from getting sunburned.

            3. refer to...  指的是……
            例: When Sarah mentioned a "rude person," she was referring to her colleague.

            4. serve as...  作為……之用,充當……
            = act as...
            = function as...
            例: My desk also serves as a kitchen table.

            5. perch vt. 使處于(較高處或較危險處)
            be perched on/upon...  處在……的頂上∕邊上
            例: The hawk was perched upon the treetop looking for prey.

            6. be associated with...  與……聯想在一起
            例: Tulips are associated with Holland.

            7. a variety of...  各式各樣的……
            例: That store has a variety of designer products.

            8. fend off...  避開∕擋開……
            例: The lone soldier fended off the attacks of nine men.
            (那名士兵只身抵擋 9 名男子的攻擊。)


            1. gargoyle n.(多為怪獸像的)滴水嘴
            2. adorn vt. 裝飾
            3. cathedral n. 大教堂
            4. mythical a. 神話的
            5. exterior n. 外部,外觀 & a. 外部的
            6. eerie a. 怪異的;令人毛骨悚然的
            7. practical a. 實用的;實際的
            8. rooftop n. 屋頂
            9. waterspout n. 噴水嘴;排水口
            10. sinister a. 邪惡的
            11. intentional a. 有意的;蓄意的
            12. medieval a. 中世紀的,中古時期的
            13. fantastical a. 奇異的;虛構的
            14. sculpture n. 雕像
            15. monk n. 僧侶;修道士
            16. decorative a. 裝飾性的


            1. direct sth away from...   把某物導離……
            2. have been around for + 一段時間  已存在……(一段時間)
            3. be decorated with...  用……裝飾
            4. some...others...  一些……另一些……


            滴水嘴 "gargoyle" 這個字來自于法文 "gargouille",表『喉嚨』之意。起初滴水嘴獸的作用是在大雨來臨時,把水導離屋頂,以避免建筑物淹水。大多數滴水嘴獸的嘴部都裝有噴水口,以便將水排出。雖然 gargoyle 一字一直被用來指任何可作為排水口的雕像,但之后則廣泛引申為置于建筑物上端的任何一種雕像。人們將排水口做成嚇人的怪物造型令人匪夷所思,但它們邪惡的外表是有其目的。這是因為以前的人相信惡靈會攻擊教堂。坐落在建筑物頂端的嚇人雕像能夠把惡靈嚇跑,讓他們無法進入教堂。
            雖然滴水嘴獸已存在 2 千多年,但它們大多令人聯想到中世紀。當時典型的滴水嘴獸雕像可見于法國巴黎的圣母院。圣母院的外觀有大量的滴水嘴獸作為裝飾。有些看起來像奇珍異獸,而有些則是修道士的雕像。如同現代的滴水嘴,圣母院的滴水嘴獸純粹為裝飾用。它們不具有將雨水導離屋頂的功能。至于它們是否能阻擋惡靈,沒人可以證實。

            標準答案: 1. (E) 2. (D) 3. (B) 4. (C) 5. (A)

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