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            常春藤解析英語【98】UNESCO to the Rescue 文化遺產的保護者

            2010-11-13 20:54:14 來源:常春藤英語
             
             
            UNESCO to the Rescue 文化遺產的保護者

            —聯合國教科文組織

            by Matthew Brown

            Without someone protecting the world's interesting and ancient sites, they could easily be swept away by the changing world.

            世界上有趣和古老的遺址若是缺少保護,就很容易因世界變遷而被摧毀殆盡。

            In 1959, the government of Egypt was working on a plan to build a dam on the River Nile. It was called the Aswan Dam, and it was intended to generate electricity and allow the river water to be used for agriculture. There was one big problem with the plan, though. The dam would flood a nearby valley that contained ancient Egyptian treasures, including two enormous stone temples.
              
            It can be difficult for governments to choose culture and history over economics. However, if countries always made decisions like this, the majority of the world's ancient sites would end up being destroyed. Luckily, UNESCO stepped in. They formed a committee that tried to convince Egypt to protect its ancient treasures. With support from many countries, they were finally successful. The huge temples were carefully removed from their original site and moved to a safe location so that the dam could be built.
              
            UNESCO is an agency of the United Nations. The United Nations is a partnership between countries from all over the world. They are joined to help promote world peace, enforce human rights, and help countries develop. UNESCO is a part of the United Nations that is concerned with science and culture.
              
            After their success in saving the temples in Egypt, UNESCO went on to save more sites around the world. They protected lagoons in Venice, ruins in Pakistan, and temples in Indonesia. With industrialization changing the world rapidly, there were many sites that needed to be saved. Eventually, UNESCO formed the World Heritage Organization to protect important natural and historic sites wherever it was necessary.
              
            By now, the World Heritage Organization has protected hundreds of sites ranging from beautiful natural islands to buildings in large cities to ancient ruins. If you're able to visit any of the many protected sites, you'll agree it was worth it.

            1. Why did UNESCO get involved in Egypt?
            (A) Egypt was planning to build a dam that would harm ancient temples.
            (B) Egypt was planning to build a valley for agriculture and electricity.
            (C) Egypt was planning to create a dam right on top of an ancient temple.
            (D) When the dam flooded a valley, several treasures were discovered.

            2. What is meant by the first sentence of the second paragraph?
            (A) Most governments prefer to sell their treasures.
            (B) Money sometimes seems more important than all other things.
            (C) Governments are never able to consider two things at once.
            (D) Governments usually don't know anything about their culture.

            3. The United Nations would probably not be involved in _____.
            (A) helping a poor country improve its agriculture
            (B) trying to solve a violent conflict between two nations
            (C) developing a new spacecraft for travel to the moon
            (D) protesting against the killing of the tribespeople of a country

            4. Why is the World Heritage Organization more important now than it would have been 200 years ago?
            (A) Countries didn't cooperate in the past.
            (B) Cities were smaller back then.
            (C) There were not as many interesting sites 200 years ago.
            (D) Modern business and production are changing the world.

            單字小鋪

            1. dam n. 水壩
            2. generate vt. 產生(熱、電、光等)
            3. agriculture n. 農耕,農業
            4. flood vt. 淹沒 & n. 洪水,水災
            5. enormous a. 巨大的
            6. economics n. 經濟因素,經濟狀況;經濟學
            7. committee n. 委員會
            8. location n. 位置,地點
            9. agency n.(政府或聯合國的)機構
            10. partnership n. 合作關系
            11. lagoon n. 舄湖
            12. ruins n. 遺跡(恒用復數)
            13. industrialization n. 工業化
            14. rapidly adv. 快速地,迅速地
            15. eventually adv. 終于,最后
            16. historic a. 有重大歷史意義的
            historical a.(有關)歷史的
            17. harm vt. & n. 損害,傷害
            18. conflict n. 沖突;斗爭
            19. spacecraft n. 宇宙飛船(單復數同形)
            20. tribespeople n. 部落成員
            21. cooperate vi. 合作

            詞組小鋪

            1. be intended to V 。ū緛恚┦且ㄗ觯
            2. choose A over B  選擇 A 而不選 B
            3. the majority of...  大多數的……
            4. go on to V  繼續∕接著做……
            5. get/be involved in...  牽涉∕涉入……
            6. at once  同時,一次

            精解字詞詞組

            1. rescue n. 援助;營救
            come/go to one's rescue  前來∕前去援助∕解救某人
            例: No one came to my rescue when I was in trouble.
            (當我陷入困境時,沒有一個人來幫我。)

            2. work on...  從事……
            例: Our team is working on a cure for cancer.
            (本團隊正在進行研究癌癥的治療方法。)

            3. contain vt. 包含,含有
            例: Do not eat that plant. It may contain some kind of poison.
            (別吃那種植物。它可能有毒。)

            4. end up + 現在分詞  到頭來∕結果……
            = wind up + 現在分詞
            例: If you keep on gambling, you will end up losing everything.
            (如果你繼續賭下去,到頭來你會失去一切。)

            5. step in  介入,干涉
            例: When the protests became violent, the police stepped in.
            (當抗議演變成暴力時,警察便介入干涉。)

            6. convince sb to V  說服某人從事……
            例: I'm trying to convince my son to get a haircut, but he won't listen to me.
            (我試圖說服我兒子去理發,但他就是不聽。)

            7. protect vt. 保護
            protect sb/sth from N/V-ing  保護某人∕某物免于……
            例: This sweater will protect you from the cold.
            (這件毛衣可以御寒。)
            例: Bubble wrap is used to protect glasses from breaking when being moved.
            (泡綿被用來保護玻璃杯在搬運時不會破裂。)

            8. be removed from...  從……中移走∕移除
            remove A from B  將 A 從 B 中移走∕移除
            例: Please remove the garbage from the table.
            (請把桌上的垃圾移走。)

            9. promote vt. 促進;宣傳
            例: Our company promotes education by offering scholarships to the poor.
            (本公司提供清寒的學生獎學金,以提倡教育。)

            10. enforce vt. 執行(法律);實施
            例: There's no point in making laws if nobody enforces them.
            (如果沒有人執行,那么制定法律是沒有意義的。)

            11. be concerned with...  與……有關,關于……
            例: This report is concerned with Internet addiction in teens.
            (這份報告是有關青少年網絡成癮。)

            12. range from A to B 。ǚ秶⿵ A 到 B 都有
            例: Our store has products ranging from children's shoes to men's work boots.
            (本店的商品包含很廣,從童鞋到男用工作鞋都有。)

            13. be worth + N/V-ing  值得……
            例: Jack's idea is worth considering.
            (杰克的主意值得考慮。)

            14. plan to V  計劃(做)……
            = plan on V-ing
            例: Hal plans to run for mayor next year.
            = Hal plans on running for mayor next year.
            (霍爾打算明年出來競選市長。)

            15. prefer to V  寧愿∕較喜歡(做)……
            例: Amy prefers to go to the gym near her home.
            (愛咪比較喜歡去家里附近的健身房。)

            16. protest against...  抗議∕反對……
            例: Students protested yesterday against rising tuition prices.
            (昨天學生抗議調漲學費。)

            中文翻譯&標準答案

            1959 年埃及政府正著手在尼羅河上方興建一座水壩。這座水壩稱為亞斯文水壩,建造的目的在于發電,并利用河水作為農業灌溉。但這項計劃面臨一個大問題。這座水壩會淹沒鄰近的山谷,而那里有埃及古老的珍貴遺跡,包括兩座巨大的石造神殿。
              
            對政府而言,把文化歷史置于經濟之上是相當困難的。但如果每個國家都做這種決定,那么世界上大多數的古老遺址到頭來都會被摧毀殆盡。幸運的是,聯合國教育科學文化組織(簡稱聯合國教科文組織)適時地介入。他們成立一個委員會,試圖說服埃及保護當地的古老遺跡。在多國的支持下,聯合國教科文組織終于成功了。這些巨大的神殿被小心地從原址移往一處安全的地點,而水壩也得以建蓋。
              
            聯合國教科文組織是隸屬于聯合國的一個機構。聯合國是全世界各國間的合作聯盟組織。各國互相合作倡導世界和平、落實人權,并幫助其它國家發展。而聯合國教科文組織是在聯合國中處理與科學和文化有關的部分。
              
            在成功保存埃及的神殿后,聯合國教科文組織繼續維護更多世界各地的遺址。他們保護威尼斯的舄湖、巴基斯坦的遺跡和印度尼西亞的寺廟。隨著世界因工業化而快速改變,有許多遺址需要拯救。聯合國教科文組織最后成立了世界遺產組織,不管何處,只要有需要,他們就會伸出援手保護重要的自然和歷史遺跡。
              
            目前為止,世界遺產組織已經保護了數百個遺址,從美麗的自然島嶼、大城市中的建筑物到古老的遺跡都有。如果你能夠親自造訪這些受到保護的遺址,就會同意這一切的努力都非常值得。

            1. 為什么聯合國教科文組織會干涉埃及境內的事務?
            (A) 埃及打算興建一座水壩,但會因此損害古老的神殿。
            (B) 埃及打算建造一座山谷作為農業和發電用途。
            (C) 埃及打算在一座古老的神殿正上方建造一座水壩。
            (D) 水壩淹沒某座山谷時,發現了許多遺跡。

            題解: 根據文章第一段,1959 年埃及政府正著手在尼羅河上方興建一座水壩,但這座水壩會淹沒鄰近的山谷,而那里有埃及古老的珍貴遺跡,包括兩座巨大的石造神殿,可知應選 (A)。

            2. 文章第二段第一句的意思為何?
            (A) 多數政府寧愿拍賣他們國家的珍貴遺跡。
            (B) 有時候金錢似乎比其它事情來得重要。
            (C) 政府從未能夠一次考慮兩件事情。
            (D) 政府通常不懂自己國家的文化。

            題解: 根據文章第二段第一句,對政府而言,把文化歷史置于經濟之上是相當困難的,可知經濟利益大于其它層面,與 (B) 意思最為相近,故選之。

            3. 聯合國或許不會參與 _____。
            (A) 幫助貧困國家改善農業
            (B) 試圖解決兩國之間的暴力沖突
            (C) 發展能夠飛到月球的宇宙飛船
            (D) 抗議屠殺某國的部落民族

            題解: 根據文章第三段,聯合國是全世界各國間的合作聯盟組織。各國互相合作倡導世界和平、落實人權,并幫助其它國家發展,可知 (A)、(B) 和 (D) 皆為正選。文中并未提及太空科技的部分,故選 (C)。

            4. 為什么比起 200 年前,現在世界遺產組織更為重要?
            (A) 以往國家間并不會互相合作。
            (B) 以前的城市規模較小。
            (C) 200 年前沒有那么多的有趣地點。
            (D) 現代商業和生產正改變全世界。

            題解: 根據文章第四段,隨著世界因工業化而快速改變,有許多遺址需要拯救,可知商業活動和制造生產使得世界各地產生改變,而間接影響遺跡遭到破壞,因此更需要世界遺產組織的幫忙,故應選 (D)。

            標準答案: 1. (A) 2. (B) 3. (C) 4. (D)

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