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            常春藤生活英語【96】The Traditions of Halloween 萬圣節傳統

            2010-11-12 21:12:36 來源:常春藤英語
             
             
            The Traditions of Halloween 萬圣節傳統

              Halloween is a well-known holiday all over the world even though it is not celebrated in every country. The main traditions of Halloween are wearing costumes, carving pumpkins, telling stories, and going trick-or-treating1. But how did they start? Like Halloween itself, the traditions began from older customs in Ireland, Scotland, and England. Different religions have also helped shape Halloween into the holiday we know today.
              
              Modern Halloween began as Samhain, an Irish festival that celebrates the end of harvest2. During the festival, people would wear costumes or masks to make themselves look like evil spirits.
              
              Carving pumpkins started long ago with the Celts, who were rumored to be head hunters. They believed that on October 31, spirits walked among the living. Skulls3 of enemies were taken out and displayed on this day to scare away any evil spirits that came to the house. After the Celts stopped collecting skulls, they began carving faces out of gourds4. When their descendents5 went to North America, they discovered that pumpkins were larger and easier to carve. The tradition of the jack-o'-lantern6 has been carried on ever since.
              
              The Legend of Sleepy Hollow7 tells the tale of a headless ghost that rides a horse. It wandered around the countryside with a pumpkin on its shoulder. Every Halloween, children enjoy being frightened by this scary story.

            即使不是每個國家都會慶祝萬圣節,它仍是個舉世聞名的節日。萬圣節主要的傳統活動為變裝、刻南瓜、說故事及討糖果。不過它們是怎么開始的?正如同萬圣節本身一樣,這些傳統源自于愛爾蘭、蘇格蘭與英格蘭境內更古老的習俗。不同的宗教信仰也有助于使萬圣節成為我們今日所熟悉的節日。
             
            現代的萬圣節起源于Samhain節,這是一個慶祝收割結束的愛爾蘭慶典。在慶典當中,人們會變裝或戴面具,試著讓自己看起來像惡靈一般。

            雕刻南瓜是許久以前由凱爾特人所起,據說他們皆為獵頭族(編按:凱爾特人是歐洲古老民族之一,其分布地甚廣)。他們認為在十月三十一日這天,鬼魂會現身于人間。凱爾特人會將敵人的頭骨拿出來展示,用以嚇走任何接近民舍的惡靈。凱爾特人停止搜集頭骨之后,便開始在葫蘆上刻出人臉。當凱爾特人的后裔到了北美洲時,他們發現南瓜更大也更易于雕刻。自此以后,南瓜燈籠的傳統也就這么延續下去。

            《斷頭谷傳奇》述說著關于一位無頭幽靈騎士的故事。它的肩上頂著一顆南瓜,在鄉間到處縱馬馳騁。每年萬圣節,孩子們都喜歡被這恐怖故事嚇得直打哆嗦。

            Building Your Vocabulary

            1. carve vt. 雕,刻
            The couple carved their names into the tree.
            那對情侶把他們的名字刻在樹上。
            2. display vt. 展示,陳列
            Many paintings are displayed in that gallery.
            那間藝廊里展示著多幅畫作。
            3. wander vi. 徘徊;漫步
            Sarah wandered in the mall for hours.
            莎拉在購物中心里閑逛了好幾個小時。

            Phrases for Learning

            1. shape A into B  將 A 塑造成 B
            My father shaped me into the man I am now.
            我父親把我培養成如今這樣的一個男子漢。
            2. be rumored to + 原形動詞  據說∕謠傳……
            The young girl is rumored to have three children already.
            那名年輕女子據說已有了三個小孩。
            3. carry on...  持續∕繼續……
            Let's carry on our discussion tomorrow.
            我們明天再來繼續我們的話題好了。

            Extra Words

            1. trick-or-treating n. 不給糖就搗蛋(的活動)
            2. harvest n. 收割;豐收
            3. skull n. 頭顱骨,頭骨
            4. gourd n. 葫蘆
            5. descendent n. 后代,后裔
            6. jack-o'-lantern n. 南瓜燈籠
            7. hollow n. 山谷(= valley)

            Grammar Check

            Like Halloween itself, the traditions began from...
            (正如同萬圣節本身一樣,這些傳統源自于……)
            Like + 名詞, 主詞 + 動詞  像……,……
            Unlike + 名詞, 主詞 + 動詞  不像……,……
            注意:
            like(像……)和 unlike(不像……)均為介詞,其后可接受詞,形成介詞詞組作形容詞用,使用時通常置于句首,修飾其后的主詞;亦可作插入語,置于主詞與動詞之間,兩旁置逗點相隔。而 unlike 雖為介詞 like 的反義字,但在句首或作插入語用時,則無 not like 之用法。例:
            Unlike his brother, Gary likes to listen to classical music.
            = Gary, unlike his brother, likes to listen to classical music.
            (不像他哥哥,蓋瑞喜歡聽古典音樂。)

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