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            常春藤解析英語【35】Hawaiian Cowboys 夏威夷牛仔

            2010-08-13 17:48:15 來源:常春藤英語
             
             
            Hawaiian Cowboys 夏威夷牛仔

            by Rebecca Fratzke

            Did you ever hear about the cowboys in Hawaii? Even though that sentence sounds like a joke, in reality, cowboys have been in Hawaii for over 200 years.

            In the late 1700s, Captain George Vancouver explored the Sandwich Islands, _(1)_ would later be known as Hawaii. During that time, he met the Hawaiian ruler, Pai`ea Kamehameha. As a gift, Captain Vancouver gave Kamehameha five head of cattle. The cattle were allowed to roam freely and began to _(2)_ rapidly. Soon, the large population of cattle was causing damage everywhere. John Parker, a sailor who had settled on the islands, came to the rescue. _(3)_ not a cowboy, Parker was a loyal friend of Kamehameha's and was given permission to start a beef industry.

            The Hawaiian cattle industry grew slowly until Kamehameha's grandson visited California and invited Mexican cowboys to the islands in 1832. These cowboys taught the Hawaiian herders important skills and better techniques for _(4)_ cattle. Because of them, herders in Hawaii were transformed _(5)_ excellent cowboys. They even became known as the most daring cowboys of all.

            Since then, the cowboy scene _(6)_ in Hawaii. Cattle ranches, like the Parker Ranch, still offer locals and tourists a chance to see cowboys _(7)_. Hawaiian cowboys have also won top awards at prestigious rodeos, events where cowboys compete and show their skills. These cowboys have proven they're definitely no joke.

            1. (A) where (B) that (C) which (D) it
            2. (A) wither (B) divide (C) shrink (D) multiply
            3. (A) Though (B) But (C) No matter (D) Regardless
            4. (A) rising (B) raising (C) arousing (D) erasing
            5. (A) onto (B) into (C) with (D) over
            6. (A) thrives (B) is to thrive (C) has been thriving (D) will thrive
            7. (A) in action (B) at large (C) by accident (D) on purpose

            原來如此

            1. ...Captain George Vancouver explored the Sandwich Islands, which would later be known as Hawaii.
            理由:
            a. (A) where 是關系副詞,其所引導的形容詞子句只用來修飾表地方的名詞,且 where 引導的形容詞子句中必須有主詞及動詞,但空格后是動詞詞組,沒有主詞,故 (A) 不可選。
            b. (B) that 可視為關系代名詞,用來取代 who 或 which,然使用時其前不可加逗點,故 (B) 不可選。
            c. (C) which 是關系代名詞,用以代替其前的名詞,可作為所引導形容詞子句中的主詞。which 和先行詞之間若無逗點隔開,表示限定修飾;若有逗點,則是非限定修飾。在本句中,Sandwich Islands 是專有名詞,不需要限定,故填入 (C) 后,語意及文法皆正確,可知為正選。
            d. (D) it 是代名詞,不具備連接詞性質,填入本空格后,會造成逗點前后兩個完整子句無連接詞連接的錯誤句構,且 Sandwich Islands 是復數名詞,代名詞不可用 it,故 (D) 亦不可選。

            2. The cattle were allowed to roam freely and began to multiply rapidly.
            理由:
            a. (A) wither vi. 凋謝
            (B) divide vi. & vt. 分開
            (C) shrink vi. & vt. 縮小
            (D) multiply vi. 增加;繁殖
            例: Over the years, people have multiplied and now live everywhere on Earth.
            (多年來人口繁衍,現在已經充斥整個地球。)
            b. 空格后說眾多的牛群開始四處破壞,可知牛群的數量是增加的,故根據語意,可知應選 (D)。

            3. Though not a cowboy, Parker was a loyal friend...
            理由:
            a. 原句應為:
            Though Parker was not a cowboy, Parker was a loyal friend...
            由于副詞連接詞 though 之后的主詞與主要子句之主詞相同,因此可將 though 子句化簡為副詞詞組,原則為:刪除相同的主詞 Parker,之后的 be 動詞 was 變成現在分詞 being,但 being 可省略。
            例: Though (she is) the mother of two children, she still has a nice figure.
            (雖然她是兩個孩子的媽,但依舊有副好身材。)
            b. but 為對等連接詞,之后必須有主詞和動詞,然本空格后只有名詞而無動詞,故 (B) 不可選。
            c. no matter 后須接 where、when、how、what 等疑問詞,方可形成完整的副詞連接詞,表『不論……』。原句空格后無疑問詞,故 (C) 不可選。
            例: No matter where I went, my little sister followed me.
            (不論我去哪里,我的小妹都跟著我。)
            d. (D) regardless 須與介詞 of 并用,形成下列固定用法:
            regardless of...  不論……
            例: Regardless of age, everyone will have fun at this amusement park.
            (不論老少,所有人都可以在這座游樂園玩得很開心。)
            e. 根據上述,可知應選 (A)。

            4. ...taught the Hawaiian herders important skills and better techniques for raising cattle.
            理由:
            a. (A) rise vi. 上升
            三態為:rise, rose, risen。
            例: As the sea level rises, more islands will disappear.
            (隨著海平面上升,將會有更多島嶼因而消失。)
            (B) raise vt. 飼養;扶養
            例: Mr. Smith raised four children by himself.
            (史密斯先生獨自扶養四名子女。)
            (C) arouse vt. 激起
            例: The issue aroused an intense debate between the two political parties.
            (這個議題引起兩個政黨間激烈辯論。)
            (D) erase vt. 抹去,擦掉
            例: Could you please help me erase the blackboard?
            (可以請你幫我擦黑板嗎?)
            b. 因空格后有受詞 cattle(牛群),故空格內應該填入及物動詞的現在分詞,以作其前介詞 for 的受詞,故根據語意及用法,可知應選 (B)。

            5. ...herders in Hawaii were transformed into excellent cowboys.
            理由:
            a. 本空格測試下列固定用法:
            be transformed into...  被變成……
            transform A into B  將 A 變成 B
            例: The magician transformed the rabbit into a parrot.
            (魔術師將兔子變成了鸚鵡。)
            b. 根據上述,可知應選 (B)。

            6. Since then, the cowboy scene has been thriving in Hawaii.
            理由:
            a. 本空格測試 since 搭配時態之用法:
            since 作介詞時,表『自從……』、『自……之后』,之后接明確的時間、名詞、動名詞或時間副詞 then,形成副詞詞組,修飾完成(進行)式的主要子句。
            例: Since graduating last year, Wendy has been traveling.
            (自從去年畢業后,溫迪就一直到處旅行。)
            b. 空格前有副詞詞組 Since then(從那時起),故根據上述,可知應選 (C) has been thriving。
            c. thrive vi. 興盛,蓬勃發展
            例: During the Renaissance, science and art thrived in Europe.
            (文藝復興時期,科學和藝術在歐洲蓬勃發展。)

            7. Cattle ranches...still offer locals and tourists a chance to see cowboys in action.
            理由:
            a. (A) in action  在運轉∕進行中
            例: At the race, I saw great professional drivers in action.
            (在那場賽車中,我看到了不起的專業車手大展身手。)
            (B) at large  逍遙法外,在逃的
            例: The criminal was still at large three days after he escaped from prison.
            (越獄三天后,那名罪犯仍然在逃。)
            (C) by accident  意外地
            = accidentally adv.
            例: I said sorry to the man after I stepped on his toes by accident.
            (我不小心踩到那個人的腳趾時,跟他說了聲對不起。)
            (D) on purpose  故意地
            = deliberately adv.
            例: I didn't knock over the vase on purpose. It was an accident.
            (我不是故意撞倒那個花瓶,這是個意外。)
            b. 根據語意,可知應選 (A)。

            精解字詞詞組

            1. in reality  事實上(= in fact)
            例: I thought I had arrived at my destination. In reality, I was still an hour away.
            (我以為自己已經到達目的地。事實上,還有一個小時才會到。)

            2. be known as + 身分  以……(身分)知名
            be known for sth  以……(事物)聞名
            例: Sir Edmund Hillary is known as the first person to reach the summit of Mt. Everest.
            (埃德蒙‧西拉瑞爵士以首位登上圣母峰的人聞名。)
            例: This restaurant is known for making the best pizza in the whole city.
            (這家餐廳以制作全市最好吃的比薩聞名。)

            3. damage n. 損害,傷害
            do damage to...  對……造成損害∕傷害
            例: Ethan's harsh words did great damage to his girlfriend's confidence.
            (伊森尖銳的話語對女友的信心造成很大的傷害。)

            4. settle vi. 定居;安頓
            settle down  安頓下來
            例: Josh finally settled down after many years of fooling around.
            (喬許游手好閑多年之后,終于安定下來。)

            5. come to the rescue  前來解圍
            come/go to one's rescue  前來∕前去解救某人
            例: The little boy almost drowned before the lifeguard came to his rescue.
            (救生員前來解救他之前,那名小男孩差一點溺斃。)

            6. permission n. 許可,允許
            give sb permission to V  給某人做……的許可
            例: The teacher gave Rose permission to go to the bathroom during the class.
            (老師允許蘿絲在課堂中去上廁所。)

            7. invite vt. 邀請
            invite sb to...  邀請某人到……
            例: Thank you for inviting me to your wedding party.
            (謝謝你邀請我參加你的婚禮。)

            8. compete vi. 競爭
            compete with sb for sth  為某事與某人競爭
            例: Roger always competed with Sally for the honor of being the best student.
            (羅杰總是和莎莉競爭最佳學生的榮譽。)

            單字小鋪

            1. cowboy n. 牛仔
            2. explore vt. 探索
            3. head n. 頭數(牛羊等的數量單位,單復數同形)
            a head of cattle  一頭牛
            two head of cattle  兩頭牛
            4. roam vi. 漫步
            5. rapidly adv. 快速地
            6. population n. 人口
            注意:population 為集合名詞,常用單數形,或與不定冠詞 a 并用。
            a large/small population  人口眾多∕稀少
            a population of 100,000  十萬人口
            7. loyal a. 忠心的,忠誠的
            8. herder n. 牧人
            9. technique n. 技巧
            10. daring a. 大膽的,勇敢的
            11. ranch n. 牧場
            12. local n. 當地人 & a. 當地的
            13. prestigious a. 富聲望的
            14. rodeo n. 牛仔競技會(包括騎無鞍野馬、用繩索套小牛等)
            15. definitely adv. 絕對地

            中文翻譯&標準答案

            你聽過夏威夷的牛仔嗎?雖然這聽起來像個笑話,事實上,牛仔在夏威夷已經有兩百多年之久。

            18世紀末期,喬治‧溫哥華船長探險到桑威奇群島,也就是后來為人所知的夏威夷。在那段期間,他遇到夏威夷首領卡米哈米哈。溫哥華船長送給卡米哈米哈五頭牛作為禮物。牛群可以隨意到處亂走,并開始迅速繁衍。不久,為數眾多的牛群便開始四處破壞。一名定居于此的水手約翰‧帕克解決了這個問題。雖然帕克不是牛仔,但他是卡米哈米哈的摯友,他獲準開始從事牛肉產業。

            夏威夷的牧牛業發展緩慢,直到卡米哈米哈的孫子造訪加州,并在1832年邀請墨西哥牛仔到島上才改觀。這些牛仔教導夏威夷的牧牛者養牛的重要技術和更好的技巧。因為他們這些人,夏威夷的牧人變成優秀的牛仔。他們甚至以全美最有膽量的牛仔而聞名于世。
              
            從那時起,夏威夷的牛仔圈便開始蓬勃發展。就像帕克牧場一樣,很多牧場依舊提供當地人和觀光客親眼目睹牛仔工作的機會。夏威夷的牛仔也曾在頗富聲譽的牛仔競技會中得到首獎,所謂牛仔競技會就是牛仔們彼此競爭,展現技巧的活動。這些牛仔證實了自己非同小可。

            標準答案: 1. (C) 2. (D) 3. (A) 4. (B) 5. (B) 6. (C) 7. (A)

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